Gage and Berliner (1992) wrote, “individualized instruction involves both one-on-one teaching and independent study. It allows, but does not ensure, individualized instruction. That is, individualized instruction-its goals, materials, subject matter, and methods-may or may not be adapted to a single student” (p. 448). Gage and Berliner suggested that individualized learning is at times better described as adaptive because it may be carried out with one individual or groups of students at one time. There are many different techniques for implementing individualized instruction; thus, it is our purpose to discuss its rationale, its theoretical base, and several of its most predominant formats.