Throw a pebble into a pond and watch the concentric ripples flow outwards. Throw two pebbles into different parts of the pond and watch the ripples come together and those from the larger stone gradually merge with those from the smaller but stil1 continue. This latter il1ustrates the forces of globalization, with the forces of social change spreading out from one major central point and others from the minor ones, with the USA being the major one and western Europe being the less powerful. Think back to the Reformation, the Industrial Revolution and the Enlightenment and there was only one pebble and the driving forces for change carne from Europe. A great deal of the history of adult education is contained within the broad historical period from the Enlightenment, or more precisely the Reformation, to the beginning of the questioning of the Modernity project in the 1970s, which was concurrent with the beginning of what we now call globalization and late modemity.