THE MOST PROFOUND MANIFESTATION OF CHANGE IN AZERBAIJANIAN music during the twentieth century was the coexistence of two sep-arate musical spheres, Russian/European and native Azerbaijanian. This new musical development became apparent in musical training, affected by Western/Soviet influences in three major ways. The first involves the foundation of a new system of musical education that replicated Russian and European academic standards and embraced multiple levels of training from musical schools to institutions of higher education. It defined a new type of relationship among musicians and between musicians and audiences.