The cultural significance of mugham in Azerbaijan parallels that of print language, which Anderson sees as "the basis for national consciousness in three distinct ways." First, print language "created unified fields of exchange and communication," forming "the embryo of the nationally imagined community." Second, it "gave a new fixity to language, which in the long run helped to build that image of antiquity so central to the subjective idea of the nation." Third, it "created languages-of-power," forms of the vernacular that were "elevated to new political-cultural eminence" (Anderson 1983: 44-45).