ABSTRACT

Distinguish between direct applicability and direct effect Understand when a Treaties article, regulation and decision have direct effect Distinguish between vertical and horizontal direct effect Recognise when a directive has direct effect and be able to apply the criteria to a problem question Know what is meant by the principle of indirect effect and recognise its limitations Identify the criteria for the application of the Francovich principle Understand that the principle of effectiveness demands that national remedies and national procedural rules cannot make the exercise of EU law rights difficult or impossible to pursue, and that the principle of equivalence requires that EU law actions cannot be treated less favourably than comparable actions derived from domestic law Understand how the Court of Justice (formerly ECJ) has developed the principle of supremacy of EU law

DIRECT EFFECT DIRECT EFFECT OF TREATIES PROVISIONS Usually, international Treaties are agreements between governments and do not create rights for citizens enforceable before national courts.