A ll cognitive information processing involves an interplay of both deduc-tive and inductive processes. The deductive “top-down” part is basically knowledge-driven, drawing on schemas, categories, scripts, and higherorder knowledge structures, like semantic networks or autobiographical memory. The inductive or “bottom-up” component is stimulus-driven. In reality, cognitive tasks vary greatly in the relative extent to which they call for inductive and deductive operations. However, every single cognitive process involves a genuine interaction of both aspects. On one hand, there is no purely data-driven, merely inductive processing. Even the most primitive act of perception or learning does not take place on a tabula rasa, but is subject to the top-down constraints of prior knowledge, Gestalts, and preparedness to perceive or learn some patterns better than others (Garcia & Koelling, 1966; Gibson, 1979). On the other hand, deductive inferences do not proceed in an empty sphere; they are triggered by stimuli and task affordances. Reading involves decoding letters (inductive) as well as inferences from semantic, orthographic, and phonetic knowledge (deductive). Getting acquainted with people requires assessing their utterances, interests, and expressions (inductive) but at the same time draws on cultural norms, group stereotypes, and expectations derived from former acquaintanceship (deductive).