In this chapter, the critical role of assessment and evaluation in ensuring a quality e-learning experience is examined. Although the terms assessment and evaluation have occasionally been used synonymously, we differentiate between the two terms. Assessment is used, in this text, to refer to its role in determining students’ learning processes and outcomes. Such assessment is, by necessity, multifaceted and can include: acquisition of skills and behavioral competencies; competency in applying cognitive skills, including capacity to apply critical and creative solutions to complex problems; and attitudinal demeanor, including capacity to be critical, supportive, or enthusiastic as required in the context of a community of inquiry. Generally, assessment occurs throughout the course, thereby providing formative feedback to students, and at the completion of the course providing summative information on learning accomplishments to both student and instructor.