Some of the most important issues related to urban and industrial growth in Africa are discussed in this chapter. Although this involves a modest overlap with topics covered in previous chapters, these issues are vitally important for Africa now and will continue to be so in the future. In this chapter we only begin to outline the main themes and problems. Urban and industrial growth over much of the continent are relatively recent phenomena, so that the environmental implications, although clear enough to people living in any particular area, are not as well charted and documented as some other aspects.