The missing ingredient was introduced in 1998 in an article published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and coauthored with Debbie McGhee and Jordan Schwartz. Greenwald introduced the new method with a thought experiment. Imagine being shown a series of male and female faces and having to respond rapidly by saying ‘hello’ to the male face and ‘goodbye’ to the female face. Then you are shown a series of names and this time you say ‘hello’ to the male name and ‘goodbye’ to the female name.