As mentioned in the previous chapter, the music and recording businesses depend to a large degree on the rights given to two important works: musical compositions (songs) and sound recordings. A source of confusion is that both of these copyrights exist at the same time in the recordings that are the driving force behind the music and recording businesses. A songwriter (who might also be a recording artist) composes a song and a recording artist makes a recording of that song. Whenever the recording is sold, downloaded, or played, both works are being used. That means that both copyright owners may be entitled to some compensation for the use of their works. This chapter focuses on the most important rights in musical compositions. Chapter 5 explores the rights in sound recordings. In this chapter, we pay special attention to those rights that generate revenues for the songwriters and music publishers; and in Chapter 5 to those for the artists and record companies.