When by the lex Vatinia in 59 (p. 98) Caesar received the provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, he must have been well satisﬁed. Cisalpine Gaul provided a ﬁne recruiting ground and it was near enough to Rome to allow him to keep in touch with political events. He had in fact to ﬁght on two fronts: while campaigning in the north he must defend and consolidate his political standing in Rome against all attacks. Further, Illyricum oﬀered him the prospect of campaigning against Burebistas, king of the Dacians (living in what is now Romania), who had created an extensive empire in the Danubian lands and threatened the frontiers of Macedonia.2 Since Caesar concentrated three of his four legions at Aquileia he appears to have intended to deal with this potential menace to the north-east frontiers of the Roman empire, where he might possibly have anticipated the achievement of Augustus. But when the Senate suddenly added Transalpine Gaul to his other provinces, the direction of his interest turned rather to the north-west.