Consider two images of Manchester United’s ground, Old Trafford, the first

taken in 1984 (Figure 1.1) and the second in 2006 (Figure 1.2).

A radical transformation has manifestly taken place. With the exception of

the South Stand (furthest away in Figure 1.1 and on the left in Figure 1.2),1 the

ground has been entirely rebuilt. A low, dull structure has been replaced by a

bold edifice of bright steel and glass. Old Trafford’s renaissance may be striking

but it is far from unique. On the contrary, since the 1990s, new stadia have pro-

liferated across Europe. One of the first examples of this renovation was the San

Siro Stadium in Milan reconstructed in 1990 for the World Cup. Visitors, at the

time, were awed by the monumental new ground with its concrete bastions and

latticed roofing.