The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Traffi cking in Persons, especially Women and Children, was adopted by the United Nations in Palermo, Italy some ten years ago. In 2009 the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) organized a retrospective of the negotiations of the protocol in Palermo and invited many of the leading commentators and campaigners who participated in lobbying or framing those negotiations to refl ect on what had been achieved through a decade of anti-traffi cking work. The conference presenters were asked to specifi cally comment on anti-traffi cking initiatives and what might be the future of traffi cking. In my own contribution to the conference I suggested that such were the inherent failings of traffi cking as a conceptualization of vulnerability in migration that in 30 years time the traffi cking protocol would probably be forgotten and modern traffi cking would be remembered as just another inadequate moral panic about the mobility of poor women (Davies 2009a). I imagined that the traffi cking protocol would then be of no more particular relevance than other mostly forgotten UN conventions such as the 1949 Convention on the Prostitution of Others (Davies 2009a). However, I also stated the instigators and the greatest benefi ciaries of what are the present traffi cking harms in Europe should be clearly named and shamed. Hopefully, this would allow the history of traffi cking when it is written to identify who were the real and substantive benefi ciaries of traffi cking (Davies 2009a).