A young man in Munich had formed a party with the avowed object of defiance of the peace treaty and the re-establishment of Germany as a great power, free and equal in relation to all other peoples. His name was Adolf Hitler. He was the son of an Austrian customs officer and had won the Iron Cross as a corporal runner in the Sixteenth Bavarian Infantry. He had started his political campaign in an obscure beer-hall in Munich. He had invented the symbol of the swastika as the emblem of all true Germans. And only recently he had felt himself strong enough to emerge from the obscurity of beer-gardens into taking the grounds of the Crown Circus to hold the first mass meeting of what was to become known as the National Socialist German Labour Party.