T he United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world (Walmsley, 2007; Warren, 2008) and it is estimated that 1 of every 37 adults are cur-rent or former inmates (Bonczar, 2003). Many more individuals have had some involvement with the criminal justice system. In 2007, over 14 million people were arrested and approximately 24% of these arrests were for violent crimes (U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2008). High rates of mental health and substance use disorders are often found in individuals involved in the criminal justice system and these disorders are thought to contribute to re-offending (James & Glaze, 2006; National Gains Center, 2004; Sacks & Pearson, 2003). There is increasing recognition of the need to provide effective treatment interventions to address these disorders (Ditton, 1999). Interventions have been developed for community settings and correctional facilities in order to address mental health and addictive problems of offenders. Community efforts include drug and mental health programs that, in many jurisdictions, are monitored by specialized drug and mental health courts (Peters & Osher, 2004; Steadman, Davidson, & Brown, 2001). Many individuals who in the past would have faced criminal sanctions are often diverted to these mandated treatments (Marlowe & Kirby, 1999; Redlich, Steadman, Monahan, Robbins, & Petrila, 2006). Correctional programs typically focus on rehabilitation and community re-entry planning in addition to the psychiatric problems that inmates present with (Osher, Steadman, & Barr, 2002; Peters & Bekman, 2007). Preliminary studies suggest that these treatments can decrease re-offending and violence (Belenko, 1998; McNiel & Binder, 2007; Spohn, Piper, Martin, & Frenzel, 2001).