This chapter considers costs under a number of headings:

Costs for project appraisal

Cost of estimating for pipejacking and microtunnelling

Key cost variables for pipejacking and microtunnelling.

Typical current cost levels - direct and indirect

Costs of crossings

A comparison with costs of open-cut construction

Costs will depend on ground conditions, volume of work, type and size of installation and other variables. Costs will also vary according to geographical location; marked differences in prices are noted from one country to another for the same type of work. Within the same country there will be also significant differences. For example, the cost of undertaking the same type of pipejacking installation in New York or Boston can be twice the cost of the same job in Dallas or Houston. When indirect costs of disruption to the community are included, total costs for installing a sewer in a heavily trafficked main street may be several times the costs for the same installation in a quiet side street in the same city. The nature of civil engineering work is such that each job has to be considered as a unique undertaking with its own specific problems, solutions and costs. This comment is particularly true when work is below the surface in developed areas of cities and towns.