While there is a large body of literature discussing US foreign policy, there is scarcely any on US foreign policy institutions and resource planning processes. This reality reflects both the disorganization of US foreign policy institutions and the high priority given to defense and defense planning as a major focus of US national security policy. In this and the following two chapters, we seek to remedy this imbalance of attention, discussing the dispersal of foreign policy institutions in American government and their planning and resource allocation processes. We focus first on the flagship organization of US foreign policy: the Department of State. In the next two chapters, we examine the large number of foreign and security assistance programs of the US government, in which State, USAID, and many other executive branch agencies play a role.