The 1960s was a turning point for both social activism and social movement studies in the West. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, some phases of social activism, such as student, civil rights, homosexual, feminist and environmentalist movements with democratic demands have risen and subsequently declined. Both explicitly and implicitly, they required radical reservations about the basic assumptions underpinning the conventional theories of that time in conceptualizing social conflicts and political struggles.