In many ways, San Francisco’s African American community emerged from the Palace Hotel and Auto Row protests more galvanized, assertive and ready to take on racial discrimination whenever and wherever it occurred. Nowhere was this more apparent than in the long-standing problem of police and community relations. For example, Ralph Newman, who owed $69 for outstanding traffi c warrants, voluntarily surrendered at the Hall of Justice whereupon he claimed he was beaten so badly by two police offi cers that he had to be taken to Mt. Zion hospital for surgery (SunReporter; 1965, Negro Beaten in Jail). Increasingly frequent instances of police brutality directed against African Americans such as the one involving Ralph Newman, spurred CORE’s call for a nine member independent citizens police review board with the power to recommend the dismissal, transfer and suspension of offi cers (Sun-Reporter; 1965, Bradley Calls for Review). Just one month after its demand, CORE chairman William Bradley was arrested and “roughed up” while picketing in front of the Emporium department store. Bradley noted that “this is the second incident of police brutality directed against offi cials of San Francisco CORE since the Chapter started putting pressure on Mayor Shelley and other offi cials to establish an independent citizens police review board. It was reported that Sherman Gerke, Chairman of the Public Relations Committee of the Local CORE Chapter was roughed up and had his glasses broken by police offi - cers on the previous weekend” (Sun-Reporter; 1965, Bradley Jailed).