The cultural formulation is the third of the four components of a case conceptualization. Given the prominent role that cultural beliefs, values, attitudes, and practices can play in the lives of clients, highly effective thera pists are sensitive to, and routinely seek to learn, additional cultural information about their clients. Such information helps therapists better understand their clients’ personal coping and social resources, as well as helping them explore the various cultural issues that contribute to clients’ suffering and distress (Ridley & Kelly, 2007).