Consistent with the absence of consensus over a unifying framework for classifying health promotion theory and practice, there has also been considerable debate over the demarcation points and meaning given to health, health education and health promotion. Over the years attempts have been made to settle the theoretical disputes regarding the convergence and divergence between the latter two in particular and to define these concepts (for example, the UK Ministry of Health 1964; Keyes 1972; Anderson 1984; Fisher et al. 1986; Tones and Tilford 1994; Naidoo and Wills 2000; Tones and Tilford 2001; Tones 2001; Tones and Green 2004). However, it has not been a straightforward process. For example, Cribb (1993) found health promotion confusing because of the apparent lack of boundaries and Tannahill (1985) felt that because health education was used in different ways it was a meaningless concept. Thus, both the general and the nursing literature have found health promotion to be a contested and, at times, an ill-defined concept. Some of the definitions represent little more than broad generalisation and some authors fail to set conceptual boundaries and imply that health promotion is any activity that improves health.