This chapter presents and reviews the general (i.e. from outside of nursing) frameworks of health education and health promotion. In line with Guba and Lincoln’s (1989) thinking, the purpose of the review is to sketch out and consider conceptual devices that might challenge Beattie’s (1991) and thus Piper and Brown’s (1998a) and Piper’s (2000, 2004, 2007a, 2007b) work as the foundation of the health promotion framework for nursing advanced in Chapter 5. In effect this aspect of the literature review constitutes additional, and a form of triangulated, theory testing. The methodology used to guide the process, the rationale for the sequence of the health education/ promotion framework review and the context of the debate are also outlined.