Throughout the preceding chapters, we have considered the central issues related to the translation process, including approaches from the field of Translation Studies to both the process and the products of translation. We have also noted that there is never the perfect TT in terms of equivalence to the ST; rather, our goal has been to minimize differences between the ST and TT across a variety of text genres, users, and goals. Our communication act models (CAM and CAM2) were presented to facilitate application of the valuable lessons learned from the study of translation. In this chapter, we will look more closely at the processes of revising and editing of target texts, where revision is the process of returning to the TT and making changes based on a re-evaluation of the relationship between the ST and TT based on any of the six factors of CAM, and editing is the final stage of production of the TT. Revision and editing are overlapping activities in most cases. In previous chapters, we have included exercises that involve a critique of TTs, including possible revisions. In this chapter, we will look exclusively at revision and editing. The application of CAM and CAM2

will help in the process. In order to begin the revision process, let us recall some of the questions that we

have to ask about the text. All STs and TTs are conglomerates of dynamic speech acts, which reorganize themselves whenever users engage with them. CAM reminds us that these dynamic speech acts are played out vis-à-vis a series of factors: author, audience, code, message, context, and channel (AACMCC). CAM2 takes the next step and requires at least a doubling of these six factors. Thus, the translator is always dealing with a reshaping of each of these factors in creating a new TT that must be in some type of relationship with its original ST, ranging on a continuum from a strong ST bias resulting in literal, interlinear translations, moving through faithful, balanced, and idiomizing translations as intermediate types, and ending with a strong TT bias, free translation (cf. Chapter 2).