The situation of the Banu¯ Qası¯ declined due to severe pressure on them from Sancho [Sa¯nju] of Banbalu¯na [Pamplona] until the time of the [emir, then] caliph, Abd al-Rah

˙ ma¯n ibn Muh

˙ ammad – may God have mercy on him.2 He

was favoured by good fortune. He never encountered anything that he could not surmount. All the rebels of al-Andalus joined the royal army and he made major campaigns against Galicia, by which God subdued the enemy, and destroyed many of them.