Abu¯ Bakr Muh ˙ ammad ibn Umar ibn Abd al-Azı¯z, known as Ibn al-Qu¯t

˙ ı¯ya,

‘the son of the Gothic woman’ informed us.2 Several learned men, including Shaykh Muh

˙ ammad ibn Umar ibn Luba¯ba, Muh

˙ ammad ibn Sa ı¯d ibn

Muh ˙ ammad al-Mura¯dı¯, Muh

˙ ammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Ayman and

Muh ˙ ammad ibn Zakarı¯ya¯ ibn al-T. anjı¯ya al-Ishbı¯lı¯, have told us, according

to all their masters:


The last king of the Goths in the land of al-Andalus was Ghı¯t ˙ ı¯sha,-[Witiza]-

who died leaving three sons. Almund – [Almund] was the eldest, Rumulu – [Aquila/Waqla/Rómulo] the next, then Art

˙ aba¯s [Ardabast].3 All were very

young when their father died so their mother became regent in T ˙

ulayt ˙ ula

[Toledo]. But Lu¯dharı¯q, [Roderik], their father’s army commander, and his supporters in the army, rebelled and seized Qurt

˙ uba [Cordova].4