In this chapter, I discuss the evolution of two cognitive processes, empathizing and systemizing, and their relevance to the evolution and development of social behavior.

Empathizing is the drive to identify another person’s emotions and thoughts and to respond to these with an appropriate emotion (Davis, 1994). Empathy is a skill (or a set of skills). As with any other skill, we all vary in it. In the same way that we can think about why someone is talented, average, or even disabled in these other areas, we can also think about individual differences in empathy.