Standardized testing has a long history in the United States, and testing is more salient in the U.S. education system than it is in any other country (Resnick, 1982). Predominantly, tests have been used to make decisions about individual students, especially to place students in special programs and to select students for college (Goslin, 1963). Accountability testing-focused on judging the quality of schools-is a more recent phenomenon, but it has its roots in the technology of IQ testing and the ardent belief among Americans that tests can scientifically determine merit and worth.