ABSTRACT

In their hunt for the warlord “terrorist,” psy-ops must have taken its cue from US federal agents in Waco, Texas, who at the same time were bombarding the compound of cult leader David Koresh with an unbearable mix of marching-band and Nancy Sinatra music, shot through with the piercing tone of a phone left off the hook. In Waco, the result was a mass incineration that left 86 Branch Davidians dead. In Mogadishu psy-ops fared little better.