The Persian Gulf emerged as one of the major battlefields of the late twentieth century. The Gulf’s strategic and economic significance was demonstrated as the region was consumed by conflict between local forces in the 1980s and then by global forces in 1991. The international dimension of conflict in the Persian Gulf reveals much about the accession of the United States to the position of sole superpower and its subsequent ability to project hegemonic power in the sphere of international relations. In this chapter, two conflicts will be explored: the Iran–Iraq War and the US–led Operation Desert Storm. These conflicts are explored together as they are intricately linked. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the United States played a central role in the arming, advising and finally fighting that consumed the Persian Gulf. The United States, freed from the counter-balancing effect of the bipolar system, pursued an increasingly interventionist regional agenda that was aimed at securing both influence and resources. As a result, Middle Eastern perceptions of the superpower and its intentions in the region were adversely affected.