Left to stand on their own, the ethical-political principles underpinning the normative proposal of cosmopolitanism set forth in the previous chapter would offer an incomplete picture for a political project. Without the support of an institutional framework specifically fitted to the global context, such a project would inevitably suffer from the weaknesses – inefficacy and exclusion – which traditionally affect modern political thought as a discipline of self-contained jurisdictions based on domestic interaction. Recognition of this was the main driver pushing for the development of the second phase of cosmopolitanism in the 1990s, which is characterized by an increased institutional sensitivity. In the same vein, to remain true to its first universalistic principles, consequentialist cosmopolitanism needs to provide a multilayered and yet unified scheme of political justice as embedded in a multilevel institutional structure. Setting out this alternative approach and indicating its full international development form the task in hand.