In order to challenge these ideological and institutional bases of transnational exclusion, the book reconstructed an alternative international political theory anchored to different cosmopolitan grounds. Three different historical and theoretical strands of cosmopolitan thinking have been considered here together for the first time: the ethical-philosophical debate that began in the 1970s, the politico-institutional discussion that developed from the 1990s, and the sociological and activist reflection that emerged from the 2000s. Engaging with almost forty years of contemporary cosmopolitan debates, the study elaborated a more comprehensive and consistent theory of global democracy based on three cardinal principles: all-inclusiveness, multidimensionality, and rootedness.