Since communication routines are developed by communication organizations to conduct their business, why treat routines and organizational factors as two levels of analysis? We see the routines level as including communication practices that are common across many communication organizations, whereas we reserve the organizational level for those factors on which communication organizations may vary. In other words, in the fi rst case we study the eff ects of practices that are common across organizations, and in the latter we look at the eff ects of variables that describe diff erences between organizations. In addition, we locate within the organizational level a consideration of how groups’ decision-making strategies aff ect gatekeeping choices.