Chapter 2 presents our approach to the analysis of managing performance. In the ﬁrst part this approach is presented in an analytical way. Three separate but related elements comprise a framework in which performance is seen in terms of the pursuit of deﬁned objectives: measuring, incorporating, and using performance. Four types of managing performance are identiﬁed, each with an increasing span and depth of performance, and improved levels of coherence, substance and consolidation. The analysis of managing performance takes the form of specifying the components and their relationships. The categories can be used to compare different country systems and to trace the evolution of performance management over time (see Appendices for descriptions of country models).