Text comprehension is a complicated process. Phenomena such as word perception, syntactical analysis, semantic analysis, and inference making are essential components of the text comprehension process. Not surprisingly, most empirical research and theories encompass only a subset of the phenomena and processes that constitute a complete account of text comprehension. Indeed, the component phenomena are themselves quite complicated, and there are multiple competing theoretical accounts of them. Theoretical accounts of text comprehension are further complicated by the need to consider production of text. This is so because a large body of research assesses text comprehension via text that the comprehender produces, usually from memory. In the face of such complexity, many theories of text comprehension focus on a subset of the phenomena and attempt to create psychological process models that can account for behavioral data.