In previous chapters, we have defined crime and traced its roots. We have considered how social institutions, including the criminal justice system itself, contribute to crime. We have looked at various types of crime and examined profiles of certain types of criminals. We have explored the role of mental illness in crime. We have also seen that crime is a socially constructed event that develops through the continuing interaction of individual backgrounds and social forces over time. Our explorations make it clear that although we do not understand all the ways in which the individual and social roots of crime influence each other, researchers have discovered enough about risk factors for crime-as well as about factors that militate against criminal behavior-to outline social and psychological programs that have a realistic chance of preventing crime, making it less pervasive and violent, and minimizing its consequences. In this final chapter, we review the major risk factors for crime and then consider some of the programs and policies that offer the best hope of dealing with crime.