We have shown that where we know there are psychological differences in the waking state, there are corresponding and related differences in the content of dreams. These observations we have offered as support for the structured orderly nature of dreaming and the importance of meaning in understanding dream content. We also have shown that the dream is responsive to experiences of emotional significance to the dreamer. All of the studies on which these conclusions are based relate waking and dreaming thought. We want to review a series of studies which we believe explore even more directly the relationship between waking and dreaming thought.