Digging deep, and trying to achieve profound shifts in the Core Self of individuals is implicit in many schools of therapy. In some, for example psychoanalytic, cognitive and certain attachment therapies, they are explicit goals. Inherent in these approaches is that bringing about changes to children's core psychological functions will often have far-reaching protective functions and developmental gains for vulnerable children. Whether it is to develop `re¯ective self-functioning' (Fonagy, Steele, Moran, Steele, & Higgitt, 1993), to address `depressive cognitions' (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979; Seligman, 1975), and/or to develop a pattern of `secure attachment' (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978; Bowlby, 1969), there is a wealth of potential here for developing resilient programmes. Many of these approaches have formed the basis of resilience-promotion initiatives. Related but distinct is the research and resilience-promotion work founded on the concepts of self-esteem, developing self-ef®cacy, competence and con®dence (Masten, Germezy, & Tellegen, 1988).