In Chapter 13, we discussed the serious implications of current assessment practices on learners and on learning. We focused our discussion on the formal assessment of those learners participating in accredited courses in educational institutions. In considering the effects of these on inclusion and exclusion, our key argument was that particular identities and epistemologies already privileged in over-developed Western societies are re-privileged through current assessment frameworks and, most particularly, through essayist literacy practices. We raised the issue of how these assessment frameworks make it almost impossible for learning outside of formal institutions to be valued and recognised.