Although historians have traditionally credited progressive male educators with creating, implementing, and promoting nature study across the country, this study shows that women played a highly significant, if overlooked, role in the expansion of nature study hoth at the local and national levels. Within an era in wh ich women sought greater social, economic, and political opportunities in the United States, they succeeded in ohtaining leadership positions in school districts and institutions of higher learning as nature-study supervisors, lecturers, and occasionally professors. Female naturalists played an important role in the development of national support for nature study through their contributions as nature writers. Female te achers, the majority of those te ac hing at the elementary level, implemented nature study to varying degrees in their classrooms and occasionally modified the curriculum created by male professionals so that it favored the life sciences.