ABSTRACT

Buddhist participation in the war took many forms, including preparation for monks’ and nuns’ involvements in warfare. The previous chapter examined how Chinese monks and especially Taixu, who was regarded as “a friend of Japanese Buddhists,” called on Japanese Buddhists to resist the war and how they urged Chinese Buddhists to fight Japanese invaders. While Buddhist propaganda continued during the resistance war, Chinese monks became more directly involved in war affairs. This chapter focuses on these forms of more direct Buddhist engagements, beginning with military training of clergy that prepared monks and nuns for the war activities.