The eight years of the war from the Marco Polo Bridge Incident on July 7, 1937, to Japan's surrender on August 15, 1945, caused tremendous suffering to Chinese people and devastation to the Chinese nation, including—according to some estimates—the deaths of more than twenty-one million Chinese and the destruction of 100 billion dollars worth of property. Buddhist temples, historic monuments, and valuable documents and scriptures were obliterated while some Buddhist traditions discontinued; Buddhist journals stopped publication and schools closed. 1 Normal religious practices of clergy in both Japanese-occupied areas and Nationalist-controlled places were disoriented. The war also brought to a halt the slow progress of the Buddhist awakening movement pioneered by reformer-monks at turn of twentieth century.