Restrictions on civilian nuclear technology transfer Soon after the nightmarish experiences with nuclear weaponry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, plans to globally restrict access to this dangerous technology emerged under the umbrella of the newly established UN. In 1946, the Baruch Plan suggested the creation of an international authority to control nuclear proliferation. Furthermore, in those countries in which the research on nuclear technology progressed, domestic debates on export controls gained momentum. The debate in Western countries was held on the basis of three fundamental considerations: first, the inhumane and devastating nature of nuclear technology, as well as its unforeseeable impact on the international power balance, were strong arguments in favour of its restriction. Second, the civilian use of nuclear power was seen as the best answer to the world’s growing energy demands, and, as such, crucial to the world’s economic development. The respective national nuclear industries, engaged in a tough competition over this potentially rosy market, set up strong lobby groups. The third dimension of the debate on restrictions of nuclear technology was set by geostrategic considerations in the context of the emerging Cold War. The interplay of these three factors determined national nuclear export policies, which may explain why they often proved to be inconsistent and volatile. The bigger the potential import market and the closer the government of the importing state stood to the Western alliance, the lower were the restriction standards of the exporting Western countries.