In this chapter agricultural development in Japan and the Netherlands since 1880 will be compared. Both countries are densely populated and have relatively small areas of agricultural land. Nevertheless, both countries have achieved rapid agricultural growth and are technological leaders in Asian and European agriculture. However, there still exists a considerable productivity gap between the two, a gap which has not significantly narrowed over the past one hundred years. This chapter aims at in-depth comparison of growth in Dutch and Japanese agriculture and extends a preliminary effort by Van der Meer and Yamada (1986).