Method of comparison In the previous chapter a detailed comparison was made of growth and productivity performance between Japan and the Netherlands over the period 1880-1985. In this chapter the main emphasis is on comparison of levels of output and productivity. First an in-depth comparison is made of real productivity in Japanese and Dutch agriculture for three benchmark years: 1975, 1980, and 1984. Not only is attention given to agriculture as a whole but also to the sub-sectors’ arable products, livestock, and horticulture, and to some livestock products. Subsequently, a comparison of real productivities for the agricultural sector as a whole is made with Taiwan and the USA.