Language developed through the contact of a European language with that of a nonEuropean language group. Historically, mixed languages arise from English, French, and Spanish through the adoption of foreign vocabulary elements and an extensive simplification of the grammar. ( bilingualism, code-switching, creole, lingua franca, pidgin, Sabir)

Semantically defined subset of adverbs which express the subjective evaluation of the speaker towards a state of affairs. This evaluation refers to modal aspects, the degree of reality expressed by the utterance (e.g. probably, hopefully, possibly), or to emotional aspects (e.g. luckily, unfortunately, thank God). On the syntactic functions of modal adverbs, sentence adverbial. ( also adverbial)


particle, sentence adverbial

Semantically defined subset of verbs which express modal meaning in connection with an infinitive of a main verb: can, want, must, should, may, shall, will, would as well as some marginal ones (dare, ought to, etc.). The two main functions of modal verbs are (a) specification of the semantic relationship between the subject and the action described by the verb, such as ‘suspicion’ (She might/could be right), ‘necessity’ (She must/has to go), ‘permission’ (She can/may stay), (b) expression of the speaker’s subjective attitude towards the utterance; i.e. they can serve as paraphrases of verbal mood, cf. Sleep! vs You should sleep. ( also auxiliary, modality). Etymologically, most modal auxiliaries in the Germanic languages including English derive from preterite-presents, which explains the irregularity of their formation.