The Baltic crisis which followed the peace of Åbo had ended in a sharp rebuff for Russia’s attempts to turn Sweden into a satellite state; it was never again to come so close to achieving this goal. The crisis had also brought about a rapprochement between Denmark and Sweden under the aegis of France, symbolized by the abandonment of Adolf Fredrik’s claims to the Gottorp inheritance, the betrothal of his son Gustav to the Danish princess Sofia Magdalena and an agreement in October 1751 concerning the delimitation of the frontier between Norway and Sweden. This was all fully in accord with the aims of Johan Hartvig Ernst Bernstorff, who was effectively in control of Denmark’s foreign policy from 1750 to 1770.1 Years of suspicion, however, stood in the way of long-lasting genuine friendship between the two powers.