The opening years of Charles I’s reign were troubled ones, marked by growing military and political crisis. At the time of his accession, England was in a state of undeclared war against Spain. In his first Parliament (June-August 1625) many members expressed growing concerns about the rise of anti-Calvinism in the Church, and they were reluctant to give much financial support for the war without further clarification about what military action was envisaged. In particular, they refused to vote the customs duties known as tonnage and poundage for more than a year. Traditionally, these had been granted to a new monarch for life, and after a year elapsed Charles continued to collect them anyway without parliamentary consent. In August Charles impatiently dissolved the Parliament, and the following month Buckingham embarked on the poorly funded and badly organised expedition to Cadiz that soon proved a disastrous failure.