Shortly after he dissolved Parliament in March 1629, Charles I issued a proclamation declaring that he would not recall Parliament until ‘our people shall see more clearly into our intents and actions’. 1 His decision to rule without Parliaments for the foreseeable future may not have hardened into a firm resolve until about 1632; but in the meantime he realised that his involvement in continental warfare could not continue without parliamentary supply. He therefore signed the Treaty of Susa (14 April 1629) with France and then the Treaty of Madrid (5 November 1630) with Spain.