Of two important aspects of an apprentice’s existence, the hours of work and general living conditions, only the latter were even broadly defined in the indenture that bound the child. The master was to provide “meet, competent and sufficient meat, drink…[and] lodging” while no hours of work or rest were agreed. By the nineteenth century hours of work, especially for adolescents, had become a prominent reform topic. Before 1800, however, there was in all occupations a general acceptance of the need to work daylight hours in summer, nearly as long in winter with the aid of artificial light indoors, and to do additional work, even all night, if an emergency demanded a craftsman’s product. For example, fashion changes, war or a royal death all brought the unplanned chance of extra sales to particular trades, and the adult, working 14 hours or more for six days a week, saw nothing wrong in an apprentice’s doing so as well. Indeed, long hours and over-work taught the apprentice what a future career involved. A fairly complete picture of hours worked in different trades in the mid-eighteenth century is given by Campbell and Collyer; there is never any suggestion that apprentices worked shorter hours than adults, rather the reverse. Apprentices’ duties included opening up and closing the shop, preparing raw materials for the craftsman to use, cleaning tools and general tidying, all of which were done very early or late in a working day.