Labour force participation of women, both Muslim and Hindu, is lower in predominantly Muslim areas, although 40 per cent of all Scheduled Caste and tribal women in those same areas are employed, all in low-status, low-income job. According to the 1971 census, 17.35 per cent of the total labour force Is female, representing 11.86 per cent of the total female population. The introduction of coffee in the mid-nineteenth century, followed by tea and rubber, brought a large immigrant population from south India, and for the first time, women undertook labour for wages. Tribal women and those among the lower strata of society play a greater part in decision-making than do those of upper strata rural and traditional urban dwellers; women in the latter groups are not expected to work outside the home, while the former engage in agricultural production.